تأثیر بازی‌های رایانه ای غیربومی بر تغییر هویت دانش آموزان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف اصلی شناسایی تأثیر بازی‌های رایانه‌ای غیربومی بر تغییر هویت دانش‌آموزان براساس مؤلفه‌های هویت ملی، دینی، خانوادگی، جنسیتی و شخصی انجام شد. روش تحقیق، توصیفی از نوع زمینه‌‌یابی است. جامعه آماری، شامل: کلیه دانش‌آموزان دختر و پسر دوره متوسطه استان مازندران به تعداد 29757 نفر بود که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 487 نفر با روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده‌ها از روش کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی و ابزار پرسش‌نامه محقق‌ساخته استفاده شده است. روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسش‌نامه توسط متخصصان مربوطه تأیید شد و پایایی آن با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ، 91/0 به‌دست آمد. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون tتک نمونه‌ای، آزمون t دو گروه مستقل و تحلیل واریانس یک‌راهه (ANOVA) استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان داد که بازی‌های رایانه‌ای بر هویت ملی، دینی، خانوادگی، جنسیتی دانش‌آموزان تأثیر معنی‌داری دارد و بر هویت شخصی آنها تأثیر معنی‌داری ندارد. هم‌چنین، اختلاف معنی‌داری بین دختران و پسران در تأثیر بازی‌های رایانه‌ای در متغیرهای هویت (دینی، خانوادگی، جنسیتی و شخصی) وجود دارد. این تأثیر در هویت پسران بیشتر از دختران است و تأثیر بازی‌های رایانه‌ای بر هویت دانش‌آموزان برحسب پایه و رشته تحصیلی اختلاف معنی‌داری ندارد. به‌طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد، استفاده زیاد و نامناسب از بازی‌های رایانه‌ای غیر‌بومی سبب تضعیف هویت دانش‌آموزان دوره متوسطه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Non-Native Computer Games on Students' Identity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Fallah 1
  • Ghahreman Mahmoudi 1
  • Shahin Kazemi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran
2 M.A. Graduate of Educational Planning, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of non-native computer games on students’ identities with respect to national, religious, family, gender and personal components. It was a descriptive-survey research. The statistical population consisted of both male and female of 29757 middle school students from Mazandaran, among which 487 subjects were selected based on Cochran formula using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Library and field methods were used to collect research data as well as researcher-made questionnaire tool. The face and content-related validity of the questionnaire was verified by experts. One sample t test, binominal test, independent t test and one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Accordingly, the reliability of Chronbach's Alpha coefficient was 0.91. The results indicated that the computer games have significant influence on national, religious, family and gender identities of students. It had no effect on personal identity. There was a significant difference between males and females in religious, family, gender and personal identity variables. Male students were more affected than females. However, the grade and the field of study showed no meaningful difference between them. In general, the results indicated that frequent, improper use of non-native computer games has a debilitating effect on middle school students’ identity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Computer Games
  • National Identity
  • Religious Identity
  • Family Identity
  • Gender Identity
  • personal identity
  1. Alavi, S. S., Janatifard, F., & Meraty, M. (2010). Comparing the national religious identity in addicted-internet users and those of non-addicted. Cultural Research Community, Humanities and Cultural Studies Center, 1(1), 107-119. (in Persian).
  2. Alipour, A., AgahHeris, M., Golchin, N., & Baghban Parshokohi, A. (2012). Computer games: Chance or threat? Tehran: Arjmand. (in Persian).
  3. Amini, K., Amini, A., Yaghoubi, M., & Amini, D. (2007). High school students playing computer games. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists), 4(14), 189-200. (in Persian).
  4. Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, fillings and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772-790.
  5. Anderson, J. E., Sung, J., & Hay, E. (2001). How violent video games may violate children's health (Translated by Anonymous). The monthly magazine of Siyahat-e Gharb, 14, 47-59. (in Persian).
  6. Arashloo, H. (2005). The effects of electronic media (such as the internet and virtual environments) on identity and mental health, university students in Tehran. M. A. Thesis in General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch. (in Persian).
  7. Biyabangard, I. (2008). My children and the media. Tehran: Presidency, Center for Women and Family Affairs. (in Persian).
  8. Bowers, M. T. (2011). Playing video games as a supplement to identity: Insights on former college athlete transitions.  Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 4, 289-308.
  9. Chen, H-P., Lien, C-J., Annetta, L., & Lu, Y-L. (2010). The influence of an educational computer game on children's cultural identities. Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 94–105.
  10. Chou, C., & Tasi, M. (2007). Gender differences in Taiwan high school students' computer gae playing, Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 812-824.
  11. Chuang, T-Y., & Chen, W-F. (2009). Effect of computer-based video games on children: An experimental study. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 1–10.
  12. Danesh, P. (2006). Satellite television and gender identity of young girls. M. A, thesis, University of Isfahan, Iran. (in Persian).
  13. Dietz, T. L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video Games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 38, 425-442.
  14. Doran, B. (2002). Family identity and cybernetic interactions. Journal of the Faculty of Literature and Humanities, 12(44), 89-126. (in Persian).
  15. Durkin, K., & Barber, B. (2002). Not so doomed: Computer game play and positive adolescent development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 373-392.
  16. Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J. A., Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative Behavior. Cyber Psychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(5), 1-4.
  17. Fazlollahi, S., & Maleki Tavana, M. (2011). The adverse effects of computer games playing on children: From educational training teachers perspectives, district 2, Qom. Islam and Education Research Cluster, 2-3, 125-144. (in Persian).
  18. Fidder, J. (2000). Information Society (Translated by Radbaveh, Ali and Gilvardi, Abbas). Tehran: Librarian. (in Persian).
  19. Funk, J. B., & Buch Man, D. D. (1996). Playing violent video and computer games and adolescent self concept. Journal of Communication, 46(2), 19-32.
  20. Gallelli, R., & Fanelli, R. D. (2010). Game and Narration. Identity Formation and Identity De-Construction, University of Bari1, University of Foggia 2, Italy. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), 1(2), 105-109.
  21. Gharayee, B. (2009). Identity crisis and coping skills and strategies. Tehran: Nashreh Ghatreh. (in Persian).
  22. Gorriz, G. M., & Medina, C. (2000). Engaging girls with computers through software games, association for computing machinery. Communications of the ACM, 43, 42-49.
  23. Gunter, B. (2008). Computer and video games effect on children (Translated by Poor Abedi, Sh.). Tehran: Javane Roshd Publication. (in Persian).
  24. Haddad Ranjbar, S., & Ahmadi pour, T. (2009). Identity finding and its dimensions through using cyberspace or virtual environment in students. Vali Asr University of Rafsanjan. (in Persian).
  25. Hafeznia, M., Kavianyrad, M., Karimipoor, Y., & Taherkhany, M. (2006). The effect of globalization on national identity (Case study: Students of Tehran State Universities). Journal of Geopolitics, 2(3, 4), 1-21. (in Persian).
  26. Hauge, R. M., & Gentile, A. D. (2003). Video Game Addiction among Adolescents: A associations with Academic Performance and Aggression. Presented at Society for Research in Child Development Conference, April 2003, Tampa. FL.
  27. Howard, J. A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 367-393.
  28. Jafari Nejad, S. A. (2008).  Identity crisis in adolescence. Zamaneh Magazine, 67-68, 25-30. (in Persian).
  29. Javadi, M. J., Emamipour, S., & Rezaei Kashi, Z. (2009). The relationship between playing computer games and aggression in students. Psychological Research, 3, 79-90. (in Persian).
  30. Jetten, J., Branscombe, N. R., & Spears, R. (2002). On being peripheral: Effects of identity insecurity on personal and collective self-esteem. Europen Journal of social Psychology, 32(3), 105-123.
  31. Julius, G., & Kolb, W. (2005). Culture, Social Sciences. Tehran: Publisher Maziar (Translator Groups). (in Persian).
  32. Kosari, M. (2004). Globalization, identity and cultural bricolage, national identity and globalization. Tehran: Research Institute and Humanities Development. (in Persian).
  33. Madani, Kh. (2009). The Effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on students' identities. M. A. thesis, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch. (in Persian).
  34. Manteghi, M. (2001). A Study of Video-Computer Games. Farhang and Danesh Publications. (in Persian).
  35. Marshall, S. J., Gorely, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2005). A descriptive epidemiology of screen based media use adolescence. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com
  36. Mir Hashemi, M., & Heidarpour, L. (2011). The relationship between social factors and students’ social identities. Journal of Social Research, 4(12), 167-185. (in Persian).
  37. Mohammadi, M., Farhadi, S., & Hesari, F. (2011). Pathology: The side effects of watching satellite programs on socio-cultural identity of Arak University students. (A case study of Arak Azad university students). A National Conference of Cultural Industry and its Role on Sustainable Development, Kermanshah, Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah. (in Persian).
  38. Morrison, M., & Krugman, D. M. (2000). A look at Mass & Computer mediated technologies. Understanding the Roles of Television & Computer in the Home. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(1), 135-161.
  39. Mozafar, N. (2012). Effective factors on students’ national identity. Journal of Social Science Education, 3, 4-11. (in Persian).
  40. National youth organization. (2006). Studying the sociological and psychological aspects of Iranian rural youths. (in Persian).
  41. Navabakhsh, M., Hashem Nejad, F., & Zad Hashempour, V. (2009). The effects of internet and mobile usage in changing the identity of 15-29 years old youths in Mazandaran province. Professional Journal of Sociology, 1(1), 145-170. (in Persian).
  42. Qamari, D. (2005). National Solidarity in Iran. Tehran: Tamaddon-e-Iran publications. (in Persian).
  43. Rae ssense, J. (2006). Playful identities or the Edification of culture. Games and Culture, 1, 52-57.
  44. Rafatjah, M. (2005). Internet and its Impact on Social Identity of female students in Sanandaj University. Faculty of Social Sciences at Tehran University. (in Persian).
  45. Rakhshbahar, K., & Samy, S. (2011). Comparing the social development of male athletic students to that of computer games players. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 12(2), 29-27. (in Persian).
  46. Ranjbar, M. (2010). Studying the impact of internet usage on high school students’ identities, Sari. M. A. Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch. (in Persian).
  47. Rees, J., & Bell, J. (1998). What is the effect of video games on the heart of a person? E-Journal of Student Research: Science, 6, 50-67.
  48. Shahraray, M. (2005). Adolescent Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Perspective. Tehran: Science. (in Persian).
  49. Sharafi, M. (2010). The Youth and Identity Crisis. Tehran: Soroush. (in Persian).
  50. Shaverdi, T., & Shaverdi, Sh. (2009). The views of children, adolescents and parents towards the social effects of playing computer games. Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(7), 47-76. (in Persian).
  51. Stefanescu, C., Chele, G., Chirita, R., Chirita, V., & Ilinca, M. (2007). The relationship between development idenitity and internet addiction: study. European Psychiatry, 22, Supplement 1, 200.
  52. Tajfel, H., & Wilkes, A. L. (1963). Classification and quantitative Judgment. British Journal of Psychology, 54, 101-114.
  53. Tangestani, Y., & Izadi, L. (2011). Developmental Psychology. Tehran: Savalan. (in Persian).
  54. Taqavi, L. (2009). Media effect on secondary school students' identity development, district 2, Sari. M.A. Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch. (in Persian).
  55. Woodward, K. (2000). Questioning identity: Gender, Class, Nation. London: Routledge, The open University.
  56. Zokaei, M. S. (2004). Youth and Virtual leisure. Department of Sociology, Allameh University, Tehran-Iran. Journal of Youth Studies, 6, 1-25. (in Persian).