Afshari, Z., & Sheibani, I. (2004). Investigation of the effect of IT on gender discrimination. The Journal of Economic Studies, 66, 1-23. (in Persian)
Akbari, M., Rezaeean, H., & Moadi, M. (2007). Investigation of emotional intelligence among Arak University students and its relationship with computer anxiety. Quarterly of Psychological Health, 36, 6. (in Persian).
Akbari-Pourang, M., & Rezaeean, H. (2008). Computer anxiety among Arak University students and its relationship with computer self-efficacy. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 52, 12. (in Persian).
Ahmadi Deh- Ghotboddini, M. (2010). The impact of computer self-efficacy on components of Davis’s Technology Acceptance Model: New perspectives of social psychology. Quarterly of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 51. (in Persian).
Amini, K., Amini, A., Yaghoubi, M., & Amini, D. (2007). High-school students and computer games. Iranian Psychologists, 4(14), 189-198. (in Persian).
Arigbabu, A. (2006). Evidence of computerphobia in Nigerian education majors. Psychological Reports, 98(2), 433-436.
Backhoff, E., Larrazolo, N., & Rosas, M. (2000). The level of difficulty and discrimination power of the Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA). Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 2(1). Retrieved from http://redie. uabc.mx/vol2no1/contents-backhoff.html
Baloglu, M., & Cevik, V. (2009). A multivariate comparison of computer anxiety levels between candidate and tenured school principals. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1102-1107.
Bandalos, D., & Benson, J. (1990). Testing the factor structure invariance of a computer attitude scale over two grouping conditions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50(1), 49-60.
Bastani, S., & Mizban, S. (2007). Digital gender divide in computer and the Internet: Investigation of students of Tehran universities. Women Studies, 1, 45-64. (in Persian).
Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2007). Self-efficacy and college students’ perceptions and use of online learning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 175-191.
Beckers, J., & Schmidt, H. (2003). Computer experience and computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 785-797.
Braten, I., & Stromso, H. (2006). Epistemological beliefs, interest, and gender as predictors of Internet-based learning activities. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 1027-1042.
Brown, S., Fuller, R., & Vician, C. (2004). Who’s afraid of the virtual world? Anxiety and computer-mediated communication. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 5, 99-107.
Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. NY: Routledge.
Celik, V., & Yesilyurt, E. (2013). Attitudes to technology, perceived computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety as predictors of computer supported education. Computers & Education, 60, 148-158
Chou, J., & Tsai, H. (2009). On-line learning performance and computer anxiety measure for unemployed adult novices using a grey relation entropy method. Information Processing and Management, 45(2), 200-215.
Cohen, B. A., & Waugh, G. W. (1989). Assessing computer anxiety. Psychological Reports, 65, 735-738.
Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: System characteristics, user perception and behavioral impacts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38, 475-87.
Delavar, A., & Zahrakar, K. (2008). Assessment and measurement in psychology. Tehran: Arasbaran Publictions.
Durndell, A., & Haag, Z. (2002). Computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, attitude to the Internet and reported experience with the Internet, by gender, in an east European sample. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 521-535.
Gibson, P., Stringer, K., Cotten, S., Simoni, Z., O'Neal, L. T. J., & Howell-Moroney, M. (2013). Changing teachers, changing students? The impact of a teacher-focused intervention on students' computer usage, attitudes, and anxiety. Computers & Education, 71, 165-174.
Gordon, C., Killey, M., Shevlin, M., Mcilroy, D., & Tierney, K. (2003). The factor structure of the computer anxiety rating scale and the computer thoughts survey. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 291-298.
Havelka, D., & Beasley, F. (2007). An examination of the factor structure of the computer anxiety rating scale. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 1, 51-56.
Hermans, R., Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). The impact of primary school teachers’ educational beliefs on the classroom use of computers. Computers & Education, 51, 1499-1509.
Homan, H. (2001). Multivariate analyses in behavioral studies. Tehran: Parsa Publication. (in Persian).
Imhof, M., Vollmeyer, R., & Beierlein, C. (2007). Computer use and the gender gap: The issue of access, use, motivation, and performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2823-2837.
Inan, F. A., & Lowther, D. L. (2010). Factors affecting technology integration in K-12 classrooms: A path model. Education Technology Research and Development, 58, 137-154.
Jafary Terujeni, S., Lavasani, M. G., Karamdust, N., & Hassanabadi, H. (2013). The role of prior experience, self-efficacy, and computer anxiety in teacher’s computer use and acceptance. Journal of Psychology, 16, 405-421. (in Persian).
Korukonda, A. (2007). Differences that do matter: A dialectic analysis of individual characteristics and personality dimensions contributing to computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 1921-1942.
Latifi, S., Allahkarami, A., & Babamoradi, A. (2013). Predicting teachers’ computer anxiety based on their personality traits and emotional intelligence. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Psychology, 2, 131-148. (in Persian).
Lavasani, M. G. (2003). Investigating the relationship of individual differences with computer anxiety among Tehran university students. The Quarterly of Psychology and Educational Psychology, 32, 109. (in Persian).
Lavasani, M., G. (2004). Structural equation modeling of computer anxiety among Tehran university students. Journal of Psychology & Education, 34, 77-97. (in Persian).
Lee, J., Lai Hong, N., & Lai Ling, N. (2002). An analysis of students’ preparation for the virtual learning environment. The Internet and Higher Education, 4, 231-242.
Mcilroy, D., Sadler, C., & Boojawon, N. (2007). Computer phobia and computer self-efficacy: their association with undergraduates’ use of university computer facilities. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 1285-1299.
Mohammadi, S., Shafei, R., & Salehi, N. (2013). A model of computer anxiety among Sport Organization of Iran. The Study of Sport Management, 20, 205-220. (in Persian).
Montazer, G., Nasiri Saleh, F., & Fathian, M. (2007). A model for information literacy development in Iran. Research and Planning in Higher Education, 2(44), 109-130. (in Persian).
Popovich, P., Gullekson, N., & Morris, S. (2008). Comparing attitudes towards computer usage by undergraduates from 1986 to 2005. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 986-992.
Powell, A. (2013). Computer anxiety: Comparison of research from the 1990s and 2000s. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2337-2381.
Rahimi, M., & Yadollahi, S. (2011a). A study on the relationship between high-school students’ computer anxiety with their field of study, gender, and English language achievement. Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations, 10(39), 51-74. (in Persian).
Rahimi, M., & Yadollahi, S. (2011b). ICT Use in EFL Classes: A focus on EFL teachers’ characteristic. World Journal of English Language, 2, 17-29.
Rogers, E. (2003). The Diffusion Of Innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
Rovai, A., & Childress, M. (2003). Explaining and predicting resistance to computer anxiety reduction among teacher education students. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(2), 226-235.
Salimi, M., Shahbaz-Moradi, S., & Bamdad-Soufi, J. (2006). Developing and validating Likert scales with research orientation in management. The Journal of Management Knowledge, 80, 41-60. (In Persian).
Sarabadani, L., Belroodi, A., & Ghyasi, M. (2011). Investigation of the relationship between computer anxiety, academic achievement, self-esteem, and gender among Janbaz and Isargar students of Tehran. The Journal of Janbaz Medicine, 13, 15. (in Persian).
Sarmad, Z., Bazargan, A., & Hejazi, e. (2004). Research methods in behavioral sciences. Tehran: Agah Publications. (in Persian)
Schermelleh-Engel, K., & Moosbrugger, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23-74.
Sobhaninejad, M., Norowz, A., Amani, J., & Hayat, A., A. (2010). Exploring the role of organizational support, experience, computer anxiety and self-efficacy in predicting anxiety. The Journal of Educational Psychology Studies, 11, 45. (in Persian).
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a uniﬁed view. MIS Quarterly, 27, 425-478.
Wang, Y. (2007). Development and validation of a mobile computer anxiety scale. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 990-1009.
Weil, M. M., & Rosen, L. D. (1995). The psychological impact of technology from a global perspective: A study of technological sophistication and computer anxiety in university students from twenty-three countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(1), 95-133.
Yousefi Saeedabadi, R., & Mohseni, S. (2012). The relationship between students’ digital gap and computer anxiety. Quarterly of Information and Communication Technology in Educational Psychology, 2, 83-105 (in Persian).
Zaki, M. (2012). Testing and validating of the Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) among male and female trainees of computer institutes in Esfahan. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 2(4(8)),5-28. (in Persian).