ارایه مدلی به منظور ارتقاء سرمایه اجتماعی اعضای هیأت علمی با تأکید بر نظام آموزش از دور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور ارایه مدلی مناسب جهت ارتقاء سرمایه اجتماعی اعضای هیأت علمی در نظام آموزش از دور انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش، کمی و توصیفی- همبستگی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه اعضای هیأت علمی دانشگاه پیام نور کشور تشکیل دادند. روش نمونه‌گیری از نوع خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای با توزیع نسبتی بود. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان 280 نفر تعیین شد. جهت جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از دو پرسش‌نامه محقق ساخته استفاده شد. پرسش‌نامه اول برای سنجش مؤلفه‌های اثرگذار بر روی کیفیت نظام آموزش از دور و پرسش‌نامه دوم برای اندازه‌گیری سرمایه اجتماعی تدوین گردید. روایی محتوایی پرسش‌نامه‌ها را صاحب نظران تأیید کردند و برآورد تحلیل عاملی نیز نشان داد که روایی سازه عامل‌های استخراج شده در هر دو پرسش‌نامه مطلوب می‌باشد. پایایی پرسش‌نامه‌ها با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ به ترتیب 87/0 و 95/0 برآورد گردید. برای تحلیل داده‌ها، علاوه بر آمار توصیفی، از آمار استنباطی (رگرسیون سلسله مراتبی و معادله ساختاری) استفاده گردید. نتایج به دست آمده از رگرسیون سلسله مراتبی نشان داد که در سطح اول از بین عوامل زمینه‌ای، بیشترین اثر روی سرمایه اجتماعی، مربوط به سواد فرهنگی خانواده (48/0) و در سطح دوم، از بین عوامل سازمانی، بیشترین اثر به ترتیب مربوط به متغیرهای کارکرد آموزشی (58/0) و فضای ارتباطی (52/0) و کمترین میزان، مربوط به متغیر فن‌آوری الکترونیکی (34/0) است. هم‌چنین، نتایج به دست آمده از معادلات ساختاری، مناسب بودن مدل طراحی شده با داده‌ها را مورد تأیید قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting a Model for Enhancing Faculty Members' Social Capital with an Emphasis on Distance Education System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behzad Rasulzadeh
  • Hossein Najafi
Assistant Professor of Educational Sciences Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aims to provide an appropriate model to enhance the faculty members' social capital in distance education system. The method of the study is quantitative and descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of the study included all the faculty members of Payame Noor University in Iran. The sampling method was a multi-stage cluster sampling with proportional distribution. The sample size was determined equal to 280 individuals based on the Krejcie and Morgan table. Two researcher-made questionnaires were used in order for collecting the required data. The first questionnaire was designed to assess factors affecting the quality of distance education and the second one for measuring the social capital. The content validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by the experts and estimation of factor analysis also showed that the construct validity of both questionnaires is desirable. The reliability of the questionnaires was calculated using Cronbach's alpha as 0.87 and 0.95, respectively. In addition to the descriptive statistics, the inferential statistics (hierarchical regression and structural equation) was also applied for analyzing the data. The results of the hierarchical regression showed that at the first level of the underlying factors, the greatest effect on the social capital is related to the family's cultural literacy (0.48) and at the second level, among the organizational factors, the greatest influence is related to the variables of the educational function (0.58) and the communication space (0.52) and the lowest impact is associated with the variable of the electronic technology (0.34). In addition, the obtained results from the structural equations confirmed suitability of the designed model with the data.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • distance learning
  • Social Capital
  • university management
  • structural setting
  • electronic technology
  1. Andishmand, V. (2010). The role of universities in creating social capital to intended purpose Iran model for improving higher education. Research Knowledge Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, 6(23), 131-142. (in Persian).
  2. Bennet, J. B. (2001). Department chairs: Leaderships in the teachers. In M. F. Greene (Ed). Leaders for a New era: Strategies for Higher Education. Newyork, NY, USA: American Council on Education.
  3. Bozeman, B., & Rogers, J. (2002). A churn model of scientific knowledge value collective. Research Policy, 31, 769-794.
  4. Conger, J., & Kanungo, N. (2005). The empowwment process integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 67-78.
  5. Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. Paper Presented at Conference on Second Generation Reform, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
  6. Gaskell, A. (2009). Student satisfaction and retention: Are they connected? Open Learning: The Journal of Open Distance and E-Learning, 24(3), 193-196.
  7. Gumus, M. (2007). The effect of knowledge management practice. Research Policy, 8(2), 38-52.
  8. Huysman, M. (2004). IT to support knowledge in communities: Toward a social capital analysis. Journal of Information Technology, 21(3), 40-51.
  9. Krinter, R., & Kinicki, A. (2004). Organizational behavior (6 Edition). Boston, USA, MA: Mc Graw Hill/Irwin.
  10. Kurtosi, Z. (2004). Aspects of gender in social network. In L. Czagany, & L. Garai (Eds.), Social Identity, Information and Markets. Proceedings of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. Szeged: JATEPress.
  11. Littau, J. (2009). The virtual social capital of online communities: Media use and motivation as predictors of online and offline engagement via six measures of community strength. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University of Missouri.
  12. Marjaei, H. (2004). Education: Institute for social development, sustainable development conference for higher education. Tehran, Research Institute for Higher Education's Planning Higher Education Forum. (in Persian).
  13. Moeinikia, M. (2012). The direct and indirect effects of service quality support academic achievement of students learning through motivational strategies for learning, distance education. Ph.D. Thesis, Payame Noor University. (in Persian).
  14. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266.
  15. Nicol, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in HigherEducation, 31(2), 199-218.
  16. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, London, and Simon Schuster, 67-98.
  17. Razavi, T. (2012). Analysis, design and implementation of educational services Virtual University. Master's Thesis, University of Shiraz .(in Persian).
  18. Sigall, M., & Gardner, S. (2000). Contextual factors psycholoical empowment. Personel Review, 29(6), 30-38.
  19. Stevenson, K. (2006). Working with student expectations of tutor support in distance education: T testing an expectation-led quality assurance model. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 21(2), 139-152.
  20. Tomai, M., Rosa, V., Mebane, M. E., D’Acunti, A., Benedetti, M., & Francescato, D. (2010). Virtual communities in schools as tools to promote social capital with high schools students. Computers & Education, 54(1), 265-274.
  21. Ungere, M. (2004). Developing core capabililtes in a financial services firm: An intellectual capital perspective, Thesis, Department of Human Resource Management, Rand Afrikaans University (RAU).
  22. Veenstra, G. (2007). Explicating social capital: Trust and participation in the civil space. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 27(4), 27-95.
  23. Wellman, B. (2001). Does the internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 436-455.
  24. Zhao, S. (2005). Do internet users have more social ties? Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005. Retrieved 04, 02, 2009, from: http://www.allacademic.com//meta/pmlaaparesearchcitation