بررسی تأثیر انیمیشن‌های داستانی بر رشد و سازگاری اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان کم توان ذهنی آموزش پذیر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیأت علمی گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد شادگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شادگان، ایران

3 عضو هیأت علمی گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، واحد دزفول، دزفول، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر انیمیشن‌های داستانی بر رشد اجتماعی و سازگاری اجتماعی در دانش‌آموزان کم‌توا‌‌ن‌ ذهنی آموزش‌ پذیر 14- 8 ساله شهرستان دزفول در سال تحصیلی 94-1393 است. روش پژوهش، شبه تجربی بود که با استفاده از طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس ‌آزمون با گروه کنترل انجام شد. جامعه آماری، کلیه دانش‌ آموزان کم ‌توان‌ ذهنی آموزش‌ پذیر مشغول به تحصیل در مدرسه استثنایی سوده به تعداد 70 نفر بود. نمونه پژوهش، 40 نفر از دانش‌ آموزان کم ‌توان‌ ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر دختر و پسر با طیف بهره‌هوشی 60 الی 74 بود که به صورت تصادفی ساده، انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش و گواه گمارده شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل آزمون ریون رنگی کودکان، مقیاس رشد اجتماعی وایلند و پرسش‌نامه سازگاری اجتماعی کودکان بود. پایایی آزمون‎های رشد اجتماعی و سازگاری اجتماعی از طریق آلفای کرونباخ به ترتیب 0/75 و 0/77 به دست آمد. گروه آزمایش 22 جلسه مداخله گروهی (تماشای داستان‌های الکترونیکی با انیمیشن) دریافت کرده و در مقابل، گروه کنترل هیچ‌گونه مداخله‌ای دریافت نکردند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی شامل تحلیل واریانس مانکوا انجام شد. مقایسه نتایج آزمودنی‌ ها در پس ‌آزمون، نشان داد که میانگین رشد اجتماعی و سازگاری اجتماعی گروه آزمایش در مقایسه با گروه گواه افزایش معنی‌ داری یافته بود. بنابراین، نتیجه گرفته می‎شود که انیمیشن‎های داستانی بر رشد و سازگاری اجتماعی دانش‎آموزان کم توان ذهنی آموزش‎پذیر تأثیر مثبتی دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Story Animations on Social Development and Adjustment on Educable Mentally Retarded Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Kiarasi 1
  • Somayeh Kiarasi 2
  • Azadeh Kiarasi 3
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to investigate the effect of story animations on social development and social adjustment of 8-14 year-old educable mentally retarded students of Dezful in the 2014-15 school year. The research method was quasi-experimental and was conducted with pre-test and pre-test design with a control group. The study population included all educable mentally retarded students studying in Soodeh special school, with the numbers of 70 people. The sample consisted of 40 girl and boy educable mentally retarded students (IQ range was 60 to 74) which randomly selected and assigned to experimental and control groups. Participants also included Raven's colored test, Weiland social development scale, and children's social adjustment questionnaire. Reliability of social development and social adjustment tests was 0.75 and 0.77 respectively. Experimental group received 22 sessions of group intervention (watching electronic story books with animation) and in contrast, the control group received no intervention. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including variance MANCOVA analysis. Comparison of the results of the post-test subjects showed that social development and social adjustment average of the experimental group compared with the control group was increased significantly. Therefore, it was concluded that story animations have a positive impact on social development and adjustment of educable mentally retarded students.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • story animations
  • Social Development
  • Social adjustment
  • educable mentally retarded students

1. Afrooz, Gh. (2009). Slow-paced childrens education. Tehran: University of Tehran Publication. (in Persian).
2. American Association on Mental Retardation. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports (10th ed) (Translated by BehPajooh, A., & Hashemi, H). Tehran: Tehran University Publications. (in Persian).
3. Amirtimoori, M. H. (2011). Designing educational messages. Tehran: SAMT. (in Persian).
4. Anastasi, A. (1992). Psychological testing (Translated by Baraheni, M.N.). Tehran: Tehran University Press. (in Persian).
5. Bayanzade, A., & Arjmandi, Z. (2010). Effects of social skills training on coping behavior of children with mild mental retardation. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 27- 34. (in Persian).
6. Beh-pajooh, A., Ghobari Bonab, B., Hejazi, E., & Hossein Kanzadeh, A. A. (2005). Compare social skills of hearing impaired students in consolidated schools and exceptional. Journal of Psychology & Education, 35(2), 63- 83. (in Persian).
7. Bokhowen, H. V., & Kramer, J. M. (2010). Disruption of the opigentic code: An emerging mechanism in mental retardation. Neurobiology of Disease, 39(1), 3-12.
8. Brodin, J. (2005). Diversity of aspects on play in children with profound multiple disabilities. Early Child Development and Care, 175(8), 635-646.
9. Bryan, H. K., Robert, M. H., & Elisabeth, M. D. (2003). Mental retardation. In Sadock BI, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadocl. Comprehensive Text book of psychiatry Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, 61-93.
10. Chen, M., Ferdig, R., & Wood, A. (2003). Understanding technology-enhanced storybooks and their roles in teaching and learning: An investigation of electronic storybooks in education. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 3(1). Retrieved 20 January, 2008, from http://www.literacyandtechnology.org/volume3/chenferdig wood.pdf
11. Chung, K. M., Reavis, S., Mosconi, M., Drewry, J., Matthews, T., & Tasse, M. J. (2007). Peer-mediated social skills training program for young children with high- functioning autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 423-436.
12. Cook, C. R., Gresham, F. M., Kern, L., Barreras, R. B., Thornton, S., & Crews, S. D. (2008). Social skills training for secondary students with emotional and /or behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16, 131-144.
13. Deshler, D., & Schumaker, G. B. (1994). Social skills of learning disabled adolescents: Characteristics and intervention. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities, 3, 15-23.
14. Dokhanchi, H. (1998). Children's social adaptability scale. Retrieved from http:// www.ravancav.ir (in Persian).
15. Doroodfar, M. )2006). The effect of life skills training to improve social skills of Educable mentally retarded students in fourth and fifth grade girls. M.S. Thesis of Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).
16. Fantuzzo, J., Sekino, Y., & Cohen, H. L. (2004). An examination of the contributions of interactive peer play to salient classroom competencies for urban Head Start children. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 323- 336.
17. Ferretti, R. P., Cavalier, A. R., Murphy, M. J., & Murphy, R. (1993). The self management of skills by persons with mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14, 189-205.
18. Filler, J., & Xu, Y. (2006). Including children with disabilities in early childhood education programs: Individualizing developmentally appropriate practices. Childhood Education, 83, 92-98.
19. Florin, L., & Hegherti, J. (2004). ICT and special educational needs (Translate by Zaraii Zavaraki, A., & Jafarkhani, F). Tehran: Avaye Noor Publication. (in Persian).
20. Foadodini, M., & Beydokhti, H. (2012). The effect of drama therapy based on social skill adjusting behavior of mental retarded girls (IQ=55-70, 14-30 years old). Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 8(5), 911-950. (in Persian).
21. Fox, R. A., Keller, K. M., Grede, P. L., & Bartosz, A. M. (2007). A mental health clinic for toddlers with developmental delays and behavior problems. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 119-129.
22. Ghasemzadeh, F. (2006). Understanding the necessity of developmental psychology in children's literature. Tehran: Roshanan Publication. (in Persian).
23. Greenspan, S., & Granfield, J. (1992). Reconsidering the construct of mental retardation: Implications of a model of social competence. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 96, 442- 453.
24. Gresham, F. M., & McMillan, D. L. (2002). Social competence and affective characteristics of students with mild disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 67(4), 377-415.
25. Gresham, F. M., Van, M. B., & Cook, C. R. (2006). Social skills training for teaching replacement behaviors: Remediating acquisition deficits in at-risk students. Behavioral Disorders, 3, 363-377.
26. Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (2006). Exceptional children. (Translated by Maher, F.). Tehran: growth Publication. (in Persian).
27. Hardman, M., Drew, C., & Egan, M. (2007). Human Exceptionality; society, school, and family (7th ed). USA: Wiley.
28. Harrell, A. W., Mercer, S. H., & De Rosier, M. E. (2008). Improving the social behavioral adjustment of adolescents: The effectiveness of social skills group intervention. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 378-387
29. Hasselbring, T., & Glaser, Ch. (2000). Use of computer technology to help students with special needs. The Future of Children and Computer Technology, 10(2), 102-122.
30. Hennessey, B. A. (2007). Promoting social competence in school- aged children: The effects of the open circle program. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 349-360.
31. Hyatt, K. J., & Filler, J. W. (2007). A comparsion of the effects of two social skill issue: Innovations in learning technology. Journal of International Forum of Education Research, 29, 663-669.
32. Jafarkhani, F. (2009). Studied the effect of multimedia visually impaired students to learn on grade level. M.S. Thesis of Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).
33. Kampert, A. L., & Goreczny, A. J. (2007). Community involvement and socialization among individuals with mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 278-286.
34. Kamps, D. M., & Kay, P. (2002). Preventing problems through social skills instruction. In B. Algozzine, & P. Kay (Eds), Preventing problems Behaviors: A Handbook of Successful Prevention Strategies (57-84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
35. Kirk, S., & Johnson G. O. (1974). Educating the retarded child. (Translated by Mehdizadeh, M.). Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi. (in Persian).
36. Marcus, D. (1992). Play therapy with young children. Indian J Pediatr, 59(1), 53-60.
37. Matson, J. L., & Boisjoli, J. (2007). Differential diagnosis of PDD-NOS in children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 75-84.
38. Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2009). Psychometric testing methods for children's social skills. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 249-274.
39. Matson, J. L., Dempsey, T., & LoVullo, S. V. (2008). Characteristics of social skills for adults with intellectual disability, autism and PDD-NOS. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 207-213.
40. Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., & Rivet, T. T. (2010). The relationship of social skills and problem behaviors in adults with intellectual disability and autism or PDD- NOS. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 258-268.
41. Matson, J. L., Mayville, S. B., & Laud, R. B. (2003). A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 75- 81.
42. Matson, J., & Avlndyk, T. (1988). Improving social skills in children: Evaluation and training (Translate by BehPajooh, A.). Tehran: Agah. (in Persian).
43. Matthew, K. (1996). The impact of CD-ROM storybooks on children's reading comprehension and reading attitude. Journal of Education Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5(3-4), 379-394.
44. McEvoy, J., & Conkey, R. (1983). Play activities of mentally handicapped children at home and mothers' perception of play. Int J Rehabil Res, 6(2), 51-143.
45. McNabb, M. L. (1998). Using electronic books to enhance reading comprehension of struggling readers. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 41-55). Scottsdale, AZ.
46. Millanifar, B. (2008). Psychology of exceptional individuals. Tehran: Ghmes Publication. (in Persian).
47. Moradi, R., Sharifidaramadi, P., & Zaraii Zavaraki, A. (2013). The effect of instructional multimedia on social skills development in mentally disabled grade five primary students in Tehran. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 4(1), 5-22. (in Persian).
48. Naseh, H. (2009). With autism from diagnosis to treatment. Tehran: Danjeh. (in Persian).
49. Parsons, S., & Mitchel, P. (2002). The use and understand of virtual environment by adolescents with austic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 449- 466.
50. Pearman, C. J., & Lefever- Davis, S. (2008). Supporting the essential elements with CD-ROM storybooks. Reading Horizons, 46(4), 301-313.
51. Ray, C. E., & Elliott, S. N. (2006). Social adjustment and academic achievement research issues. Hillsdele, N. J: Erlbaum, 33, 333-352.
52. Reinking, D., & ChanLin, L. (1994). Graphics aids in electronic texts. Reading Research and Instruction, 33, 207-232.
53. Shahmive Isfahani, A., Bahramipour, M., Heidari, T., & Faramarzi, S. (2014). The effect of group play training on adaptive behavior of girls and boys with educable mental disabilities. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 15(3), 63-70. (in Persian).
54. Shirmohamadi, M., Chardoli, M., & Zargari, H. (2012). Introduction to multimedia. Hamadan: Daneshjo Publication. (in Persian).
55. Skaines, N., Rodger, S., & Bundy, A. (2006). Playfulness in children with autistic disorder and their typically developing peers. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(11), 505-12.
56. Underwood, J. (2000). A comparison of two types of computer support for reading development. Journal of Research in Reading, 23(2), 136-148.
57. Unsworth, L. (2003). Reframing research and literacy pedagogy relating to CD narratives: Addressing radical change in digital age literature for children. Issue in Educational Research, 13(2), 55-70.
58. Wainer, A., & Ingersoll, R. (2010). The use of innovative computer technology for teaching social communication to individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 96-107.
59. Webster- Stratton, C., Reid, J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Social skills and problem-solving training for children with early-onset conduct problems: Who benefits? Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 943-952.

1.       Afrooz, Gh. (2009). Slow-paced childrens education. Tehran: University of Tehran Publication. (in Persian).

2.       American Association on Mental Retardation. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports (10thed) (Translated by BehPajooh, A., & Hashemi, H). Tehran: Tehran University Publications. (in Persian).

3.       Amirtimoori, M. H. (2011). Designing educational messages. Tehran: SAMT. (in Persian).

4.       Anastasi, A. (1992).Psychological testing (Translated by Baraheni, M.N.). Tehran: Tehran University Press. (in Persian).

5.       Bayanzade, A., & Arjmandi, Z. (2010). Effects of social skills training on coping behavior of children with mild mental retardation. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 27- 34. (in Persian).

6.       Beh-pajooh, A., Ghobari Bonab, B., Hejazi, E., & Hossein Kanzadeh, A. A. (2005). Compare social skills of hearing impaired students in consolidated schools and exceptional. Journal of Psychology & Education, 35(2), 63- 83.(in Persian).

7.       Bokhowen, H. V., & Kramer, J. M. (2010). Disruption of the opigentic code: An emerging mechanism in mental retardation. Neurobiology of Disease, 39(1), 3-12.

8.       Brodin, J. (2005). Diversity of aspects on play in children with profound multiple disabilities. Early Child Development and Care, 175(8), 635-646.

9.       Bryan, H. K., Robert, M. H., & Elisabeth, M. D. (2003). Mental retardation. In Sadock BI, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadocl. Comprehensive Text book of psychiatry Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, 61-93.

10.   Chen, M., Ferdig, R., & Wood, A. (2003). Understanding technology-enhanced storybooks andtheir roles in teaching and learning: An investigation of electronic storybooks ineducation. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 3(1). Retrieved 20 January, 2008, from http://www.literacyandtechnology.org/volume3/chenferdig wood.pdf

11.   Chung, K. M., Reavis, S., Mosconi, M., Drewry, J., Matthews, T., & Tasse, M.J. (2007). Peer-mediated social skills training program for young children withhigh-functioning autism.Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 423-436.

12.   Cook, C. R., Gresham, F. M., Kern, L., Barreras, R. B., Thornton, S., & Crews,S. D. (2008). Social skills training for secondary students with emotionaland/or behavioral disorders. Journal ofEmotional and BehavioralDisorders, 16, 131-144.

13.   Deshler, D., & Schumaker, G. B. (1994). Social skills of learning disabledadolescents: Characteristics and intervention. Topics in Learning andLearning Disabilities, 3, 15-23.

14.   Dokhanchi, H. (1998). Children's social adaptability scale. Retrieved from http:// www.ravancav.ir(in Persian).

15.   Doroodfar, M. )2006). The effect of life skills training to improve social skills ofEducable mentally retarded studentsin fourth and fifth grade girls. M.S. Thesis of Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).

16.   Fantuzzo, J., Sekino, Y., & Cohen, H. L. (2004). An examination of thecontributions of interactive peer play to salient classroom competencies forurban Head Start children. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 323-336.

17.   Ferretti, R. P., Cavalier, A. R., Murphy, M. J., & Murphy, R.(1993). The selfmanagementof skills by persons with mental retardation. Research inDevelopmental Disabilities, 14, 189-205.

18.   Filler, J., & Xu, Y. (2006). Including children with disabilities in earlychildhood education programs: Individualizing developmentally appropriatepractices. Childhood Education, 83, 92-98.

19.   Florin, L., & Hegherti, J. (2004). ICT and special educational needs (Translate by Zaraii Zavaraki, A., & Jafarkhani, F). Tehran: Avaye Noor Publication. (in Persian).

20.   Foadodini, M., & Beydokhti, H. (2012). The effect of drama therapy based on social skill adjusting behavior of mental retarded girls (IQ=55-70, 14-30 years old). Journal of Research in RehabilitationSciences, 8(5), 911-950. (in Persian).

21.   Fox, R. A., Keller, K. M., Grede, P. L., & Bartosz, A. M. (2007). A mental healthclinic for toddlers with developmental delays and behavior problems.Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 119-129.

22.   Ghasemzadeh, F. (2006). Understanding the necessity of developmental psychology in children's literature. Tehran: Roshanan Publication. (in Persian).

23.   Greenspan, S., & Granfield, J. (1992). Reconsidering the construct of mentalretardation: Implications of a model of social competence. American Journalof Mental Retardation, 96,442- 453.

24.   Gresham, F. M., & McMillan, D. L. (2002). Social competence and affectivecharacteristics of students with mild disabilities. Review of EducationalResearch, 67(4), 377-415.

25.   Gresham, F. M., Van, M. B., & Cook, C. R. (2006). Social skills training forteaching replacement behaviors: Remediating acquisition deficits in at-riskstudents. Behavioral Disorders, 3, 363-377.

26.   Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (2006). Exceptional children. (Translated by Maher, F.). Tehran: growth Publication. (in Persian).

27.   Hardman, M., Drew, C., & Egan, M. (2007). Human Exceptionality; society, school, and family (7th ed). USA: Wiley.

28.   Harrell, A. W., Mercer, S. H., & DeRosier, M. E. (2008). Improving the socialbehavioraladjustment of adolescents: The effectiveness of social skills groupintervention. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 378-387

29.   Hasselbring, T., & Glaser, Ch. (2000). Use of computer technology to help students with special needs. The Future of Children and Computer Technology, 10(2), 102-122.

30.   Hennessey, B. A. (2007). Promoting social competence in school-agedchildren: The effects of the open circle program. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 349-360.

31.   Hyatt, K. J., & Filler, J. W. (2007). A comparsion of the effects of two social skill issue: Innovations in learning technology. Journal of International Forum of Education Research, 29, 663-669.

32.   Jafarkhani, F. (2009). Studied the effect of multimedia visually impaired students to learn on grade level. M.S. Thesis of Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).

33.   Kampert, A. L., & Goreczny, A. J. (2007). Community involvement andsocialization among individuals with mental retardation. Research inDevelopmental Disabilities, 28, 278-286.

34.   Kamps, D. M., & Kay, P. (2002). Preventing problems through social skillsinstruction. In B. Algozzine, & P. Kay (Eds), Preventing problems Behaviors:A Handbook of Successful Prevention Strategies (57-84). ThousandOaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

35.   Kirk, S., & Johnson G. O. (1974). Educating the retarded child. (Translated by Mehdizadeh, M.). Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi. (in Persian).

36.   Marcus, D. (1992). Play therapy with young children. Indian J Pediatr, 59(1), 53-60.

37.   Matson, J. L., & Boisjoli, J. (2007). Differential diagnosis of PDD-NOS inchildren. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 75-84.

38.   Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2009). Psychometric testing methods for children's social skills. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 249-274.

39.   Matson, J. L., Dempsey, T., & LoVullo, S. V. (2008). Characteristics of socialskills for adults with intellectual disability, autism and PDD-NOS. Research inAutism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 207-213.

40.   Matson, J. L., Fodstad, J. C., & Rivet, T. T. (2010). The relationship of socialskills and problem behaviors in adults with intellectual disability and autism orPDD-NOS. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 258-268.

41.   Matson, J. L., Mayville, S. B., & Laud, R. B. (2003). A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects,and psychiatric disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 75-81.

42.   Matson, J., & Avlndyk, T. (1988). Improving social skills in children: Evaluation and training (Translate by BehPajooh, A.). Tehran: Agah. (in Persian).

43.   Matthew, K. (1996). The impact of CD-ROM storybooks on children's readingcomprehensionand reading attitude. Journal of Education Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5(3-4), 379-394.

44.   McEvoy, J., & Conkey, R. (1983). Play activities of mentally handicapped children at home and mothers' perception of play. Int J Rehabil Res, 6(2), 51-143.

45.   McNabb, M. L. (1998). Using electronic books to enhance reading comprehension of strugglingreaders. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 41-55). Scottsdale, AZ.

46.   Millanifar, B. (2008). Psychology of exceptional individuals. Tehran: Ghmes Publication. (in Persian).

47.   Moradi, R., Sharifidaramadi, P., & Zaraii Zavaraki, A. (2013). The effect of instructional multimedia on social skills development in mentally disabled grade five primary students in Tehran. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 4(1), 5-22. (in Persian).

48.   Naseh, H. (2009). With autism from diagnosis to treatment. Tehran: Danjeh. (in Persian).

49.   Parsons, S., & Mitchel, P. (2002). The use and understand of virtual environment by adolescents with austic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 449- 466.

50.   Pearman, C. J., & Lefever-Davis, S. (2008). Supporting the essential elements with CD-ROMstorybooks. Reading Horizons, 46(4), 301-313.

51.   Ray, C. E., & Elliott, S. N. (2006). Social adjustment and academic achievement research issues. Hillsdele, N. J: Erlbaum, 33, 333-352.

52.   Reinking, D., & ChanLin, L. (1994). Graphics aids in electronic texts. Reading Research andInstruction, 33, 207-232.

53.   Shahmive Isfahani, A., Bahramipour, M., Heidari, T., & Faramarzi, S. (2014). The effect of group play training on adaptive behavior of girls and boys with educable mental disabilities. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 15(3), 63-70. (in Persian).

54.   Shirmohamadi, M., Chardoli, M., & Zargari, H. (2012). Introduction to multimedia. Hamadan: Daneshjo Publication. (in Persian).

55.   Skaines, N., Rodger, S., & Bundy, A. (2006). Playfulness in children with autistic disorder and their typically developing peers. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(11), 505-12.

56.   Underwood, J. (2000). A comparison of two types of computer support for reading development.Journal of Research in Reading, 23(2), 136-148.

57.   Unsworth, L. (2003). Reframing research and literacy pedagogy relating to CD narratives: Addressing radical change in digital age literature for children. Issue in Educational Research, 13(2), 55-70.

58.   Wainer, A., & Ingersoll, R. (2010). The use of innovative computer technology for teaching social communication to individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 96-107.

Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Social skills andproblem-solving training for children with early-onset conduct problems: Whobenefits? Child Psychology and Psychiatry and AlliedDisciplines, 42, 943-952.