تأثیر آموزش محاسبه ذهنی ـ چرتکه ای بر مهارت حل مسأله ریاضی دانش‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

هدف از اجرای این پژوهش، مقایسه تأثیر آموزش محاسبه ذهنی- چرتکه‌ای بر مهارت حل مسأله ریاضی در دانشآموزان آموزش دیده و آموزش ندیده مقطع ابتدایی است. پژوهش حاضر از نظر روش، توصیفی از نوع علی- مقایسه‌ ای است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، دانش‌آموزان پایه ششم ابتدایی ناحیه 3 شهر کرج است. نمونه آماری، شامل 60 نفر گروه آموزش دیده و120 نفرگروه آموزش ندیده است که حجم آن با فرمول کوکران تعیین شد و به روش تصادفی خوشهای چند‌مرحله‌ ای انتخاب گردیدند. جمع‌آوری داده‌ها با استفاده از پرسش‌نامه حل مسأله ریاضی، پرسش‌نامه محاسبه عددی بر اساس آزمون‌های استاندارد تیمز و دقت و تمرکز از آزمون‌های استاندارد وکسلر می‌باشد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از روش‌ های آمار استنباطی و نرم‌ افزار آماریSPSSاستفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که دانش‌آموزانی که آموزش محاسبه ذهنی- چرتکه‌ ای را فرا گرفته بودند و آنهایی که فاقد این آموزش بودند، از نظر مؤلفه‌ های سرعت در حل مسأله ریاضی، دقت و تمرکز و محاسبه عددی تفاوت معنی ‌دار دارند. به‌طوری که دانش‌آموزان آموزش دیده در مؤلفه‌ های یاد شده دارای نمرات بالاتر و موفق‌تر بودند. یافته‎ها نشان داد که در مؤلفه شناخت راهبرد‌های حل مسأله ریاضی، در راهبردهای زیرمسأله، رسم شکل، روش نمادین و حل مسأله ساده ‌تر تفاوت معنی‌دار وجود دارد، در حالی‌که در راهبردهای الگویابی، الگوسازی و حدس و آزمایش تفاوت معنی‌ داری مشاهده نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Abacus Mental Arithmetic Training on Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of the Primary School Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mana Bazzazi Lemraski 1
  • Ramezan Jahanian 2
  • Parisa Irannejad 3
2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Administration, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Administration, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of abacus mental arithmetic training of the mathematical problem solving skills in trained and untrained students of elementary school. This research was a descriptive method, causal-comparative. The statistical population in this study was elementary students of sixth grade in district 3 in Karaj. The research samples included 60 trained pupils and 120 untrained pupils. Samples were selected with multi-stage cluster sampling method and using Cochran sampling formula. Data obtained using mathematical problem solving questionnaire and numerical calculating questionnaire on the basis of standardized TIMSS tests and precision and concentration from Wechsler standardized tests. Inferential statistical techniques and SPSS statistical software was used to analysis data. The results showed that the students who had trained abacus mental arithmetic and those who had not trained had significant differences in velocity components in mathematical problem solving, precision and concentration, and numerical calculation. So that trained students had higher scores in mentioned components and was more successful. Findings showed that there were significant differences in cognitive dimension of mathematical problem solving strategies such as under problem strategies, shape drawing, symbol method and easier problem solving method, while there were no significant differences in modeling strategies, pattern making and guesses and experiment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • abacus mental arithmetic training
  • problem solving skills
  • mathematic
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