مقایسه سطوح یادگیری به روش مشارکتی و انفرادی درکلاس معکوس مطالعات اجتماعی دوره ابتدایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی ، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی ، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی ، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر مقایسه سطوح یادگیری در رویکرد معکوس به روش انفرادی و گروهی باگروه تدریس معمول در درس مطالعات اجتماعی دانش آموزان پایه‌ی پنجم ابتدایی می باشد. روش تحقیق شبه آزمایشی و طرح تحقیق، پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه ی آماری شامل دانش آموزان دختر مشغول به تحصیل در پایه پنجم ابتدایی شهر تهران منطقه 18 در سال تحصیلی 1399-1398 بود. نمونه گیری از نوع در دسترس شامل بر 60 دانش آموز از یک دبستان دولتی بود که به صورت تصادفی در سه گروه یادگیری معکوس مشارکتی، معکوس فردی و آموزش معمول قرار گرفته و طی 12 جلسه آموزش دیدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات آزمون محقق ساخته (پیش آزمون- پس آزمون) مطابق با سطوح شناختی بلوم با تایید روایی و پایایی بود. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از آمار توصیفی و آزمون تحلیل کواریانس استفاده شد. یافته های حاصل از نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که رویکرد یادگیری معکوس بر میزان یادگیری دانش آموزان تاثیر معناداری داشته و تاثیر آن به ترتیب در گروه معکوس مشارکتی و معکوس فردی نسبت به آموزش معمول بیشتر بوده است اما سطوح بالای یادگیری در حیطه شناختی بلوم در گروه معکوس مشارکتی نسبت به معکوس فردی بیشتر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing Cooperative with Individual Flipped Learning in Elementary School Social Studies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faezeh Azizkhani 1
  • Fatemeh Jafarkhani 2
  • Mohamad reza nili 3
1 Allameh Tabataba'i University
چکیده [English]

The main purpose of this study is to compare learning levels of cooperative flipped learning with individual one of fifth grade primary students in social studies. The research method is quasi-experimental and the research design is pretest-posttest with a control group. The statistical population included female students studying in the fifth grade of elementary school in Tehran, district 18 in the academic year 1398-99. The statistical sample consisted of 60 students who were randomly selected from a public primary school and participated in three groups of cooperative , individual flipped classes and the normal class for 12 sessions. The researcher-made test data collection tool (pre-test-post-test) was in accordance with Bloom's cognitive levels by confirming the content validity. Descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data. Findings from the results showed that flipped learning approach had a significant effect on students' learning and its effect was higher in cooperative and individual flipped groups than the normal method, respectively. However high levels of learning in Bloom's cognitive domain in cooperative flipped group has been greater than the individual one.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • elementary school
  • flipped learning
  • group learning
  • levels of Blooms cognitive learning
  • social sciences
[1]Badleh, A., Mahmoudzadeh, H.,& Kabirizadeh, R. (2020). Comparison of Learning Memorization Learning from Multimedia Technology Classroom, Laboratory Classroom, and flipped Traditional
[1]Badleh, A., Mahmoudzadeh, H.,& Kabirizadeh, R. (2020). Comparison of Learning Memorization Learning from Multimedia Technology Classroom, Laboratory Classroom, and flipped Traditional Classroom in Elementary, Quarterly Journal of Curriculum Planning, 63:16 151-139. (in Persian).##[2]Barzegar, F. & Faraj Elahi, M,. (2020). The effect of fllipped teaching method in science course on learning and self-concept of fourth year elementary students, Master Thesis, Payame Noor University, South Tehran. (in Persian).##[3]Gardner, H. (1983). Frams of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.##[4]Garrison, D. R., Kanuka, H. (2004). “Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education”. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2): 95-105.##[5]Gonzalez-Gomez, D., Jeong ,J. & Airado Rodriguz, D,. (2016). Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom. Journal of Science Educational and technology, Canada- canada , Florentina,v25 n3 p450-459 Jun 2016.##[6]Jafarkhani, F. &, Dehvari .,S. (2017). The effect of flipped education on the academic achievemt and motivation seventh grade students in work and technology course, Conference on New Management Paradigms and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran. (in Persian).##[7]Jafarkhani, F,. Jamebozorg. ,Z., & Nikkho. L,. (2017).Review of learning environments: flipped class and learning elementary mathematics course, the first national conference on educational technology and learning environments, Tehran, Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).##[8]Jamaludin, R., & Osman, S. Z. M. (2014). The use of a flipped classroom to enhance engagement and promote active learning. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 124-131.##[9]Hwang, R. H., Lin, H. T., Sun, J. C. Y., & Wu, J. J. (2019). Improving learning achievement in science education for elementary school students via blended learning. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD), 9(2), 44-62.##[10]Kakosimos, K. E. (2015). Example of a micro-adaptive instruction methodology for the improvement of flipped-classrooms and adaptive-learning based on advanced blended-learning tools. Education for chemical engineers, 12, 1-11.##[11]Knapp, R., (2010). Collective(Team) Learning Process Models: A Conceptual Review. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 285–299. Marks, M. A., Mathieu, J. E., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. Academy of Management Review, 26, 356-376.##[12]Kwon, J. E., & Woo, H. R. (2018). The impact of flipped learning on cooperative and competitive mindsets. Sustainability, 10(1), 79.##[13]Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43. learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89: 236e243. ##[14]Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2020). A comparison of flipped learning with gamification, traditional learning, and online independent study: the effects on students’ mathematics achievement and cognitive engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(4), 464-481.##[15]Macknnon , Gregory (2015). Determining Useful Tools for the Flipped Science Education Classroom. Contemporary Issue in Technoligy and Teacher Education (CITE Journal ) v15 n1 p44-55 2015.##[16]Mahoney, J. W., & Harris-Reeves, B. (2019). The effects of collaborative testing on higher order thinking: Do the bright get brighter?. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 25-37.##[17]Mansob, A., (2015). I want to flipped my class, can I or can't I? Farda School Educational Monthly, No. 88. (in Persian).##[18]Mayer, chat. (2005). Teaching critical thinking, translated by Khodayar Beigi, Tehran, Samat. (in Persian).##[19]McLean, S.,Attardi, S.M.,Faden,L.& Goldszmidt, M. (2016) flippedclassroom and student learning: not just surface gains. Advances in physiology Education,40(1),47-55.##[20]Noshadi, N.,& Khademi, M., (2011), Virji and Adorf (1993). Evaluation of the social studies curriculum of Iranian teacher training centers from the perspective of critical thinking. Educational Innovations, 38 (9), 134-107. (in Persian).##[21]Piri, M, Sahib Yar, H., & Sedalhi, A., (2019). The Impact of flipe Class on Self-Governance in Learning English Lessons, Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovation, 3:12 236-229. (in Persian).##[22]Rasooli, Y.,& Issa Murad, A. (2015). The effectiveness of rhetorical teaching methods on students' creativity and academic achievement. Innovation and Creativity in the Humanities, 6 (1), 174-157. (in Persian).##[23]Rosenberg, T. (2013). In flipped classrooms, a method for mastery. New York Times, 23.##[24]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J (2012). Flip your class room: reach every student in evrey class every day. International Society for technology in Education. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/resources/ product?ID= 2285.##[25]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J.(2013). Flip your students' learning. Educational leadership, 70(6), 16-20.##[26]See, S., & Conry, J. (2019). Flip My Class! A faculty development demonstration of a flipped-class.Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(4), 585-588 .##[27]Sezer , B. (2017). The Effectiveness of a Technology-Enhanced Flipped Science Classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Resrarch, v55 n4 p 471- 494 Jul 2017.##[28]Tavana, S. (2017). Investigating the effect of flipped class teaching method on mathematics learning and mathematical academic achievement of fourth grade elementary school girls in Bandar Abbas in the academic year 2016-2017, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch. (in Persian).##[29]Thomas ,J .S., & Philpot ,T .A . (2012, June). An inveted teaching model for a mechanics of materials course.Paper presented in ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition ,San Antonio,USA.##[30]Tulabi, H., & Azizi, F. (2018). Investigating the effect of flipped education on the learning rate of sixth grade elementary school students. "The first conference on teaching and applying mathematics. (in Persian).##[31]Ye, X. D., Chang, Y. H., & Lai, C. L. (2019). An interactive problem-posing guiding approach to bridging and facilitating pre-and in-class learning for flipped classrooms. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 1075-1092.##[32]Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the Role of E-Learning Readiness on Student Satisfaction and Motivation in Flipped Classroom. Computers in Human Behavior. Classroom in Elementary, Quarterly Journal of Curriculum Planning, 63:16 151-139. (in Persian).##[2]Barzegar, F.,& Faraj Elahi, M,. (2020). The effect of fllipped teaching method in science course on learning and self-concept of fourth year elementary students, Master Thesis, Payame Noor University, South Tehran. (in Persian).##[3]Gardner, H. (1983). Frams of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.##[4]Garrison, D. R., Kanuka, H. (2004). “Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education”. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2): 95-105.##[5]Gonzalez-Gomez, D., Jeong ,J.,& Airado Rodriguz, D,. (2016). Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom. Journal of Science Educational and technology, Canada- canada , Florentina,v25 n3 p450-459 Jun 2016.##[6]Jafarkhani, F., &, Dehvari .,S. (2017). The effect of flipped education on the academic achievemt and motivation seventh grade students in work and technology course, Conference on New Management Paradigms and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran. (in Persian).##[7]Jafarkhani, F,. Jamebozorg. ,Z., & Nikkho. L,. (2017).Review of learning environments: flipped class and learning elementary mathematics course, the first national conference on educational technology and learning environments, Tehran, Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).##[8]Jamaludin, R., & Osman, S. Z. M. (2014). The use of a flipped classroom to enhance engagement and promote active learning. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 124-131.##[9]Hwang, R. H., Lin, H. T., Sun, J. C. Y., & Wu, J. J. (2019). Improving learning achievement in science education for elementary school students via blended learning. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD), 9(2), 44-62.##[10]Kakosimos, K. E. (2015). Example of a micro-adaptive instruction methodology for the improvement of flipped-classrooms and adaptive-learning based on advanced blended-learning tools. Education for chemical engineers, 12, 1-11.##[11]Knapp, R., (2010). Collective(Team) Learning Process Models: A Conceptual Review. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 285–299. Marks, M. A., Mathieu, J. E., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. Academy of Management Review, 26, 356-376.##[12]Kwon, J. E., & Woo, H. R. (2018). The impact of flipped learning on cooperative and competitive mindsets. Sustainability, 10(1), 79.##[13]Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43. learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89: 236e243. ##[14]Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2020). A comparison of flipped learning with gamification, traditional learning, and online independent study: the effects on students’ mathematics achievement and cognitive engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(4), 464-481.##[15]Macknnon , Gregory (2015). Determining Useful Tools for the Flipped Science Education Classroom. Contemporary Issue in Technoligy and Teacher Education (CITE Journal ) v15 n1 p44-55 2015.##[16]Mahoney, J. W., & Harris-Reeves, B. (2019). The effects of collaborative testing on higher order thinking: Do the bright get brighter?. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 25-37.##[17]Mansob, A., (2015). I want to flipped my class, can I or can't I? Farda School Educational Monthly, No. 88. (in Persian).##[18]Mayer, chat. (2005). Teaching critical thinking, translated by Khodayar Beigi, Tehran, Samat. (in Persian).##[19]McLean, S.,Attardi, S.M.,Faden,L.& Goldszmidt, M. (2016) flippedclassroom and student learning: not just surface gains. Advances in physiology Education,40(1),47-55.##[20]Noshadi, N.,& Khademi, M., (2011), Virji and Adorf (1993). Evaluation of the social studies curriculum of Iranian teacher training centers from the perspective of critical thinking. Educational Innovations, 38 (9), 134-107. (in Persian).##[21]Piri, M, Sahib Yar, H., & Sedalhi, A., (2019). The Impact of flipe Class on Self-Governance in Learning English Lessons, Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovation, 3:12 236-229. (in Persian).##[22]Rasooli, Y.,& Issa Murad, A. (2015). The effectiveness of rhetorical teaching methods on students' creativity and academic achievement. Innovation and Creativity in the Humanities, 6 (1), 174-157. (in Persian).##[23]Rosenberg, T. (2013). In flipped classrooms, a method for mastery. New York Times, 23.##[24]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J (2012). Flip your class room: reach every student in evrey class every day. International Society for technology in Education. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/resources/ product?ID= 2285.##[25]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J.(2013). Flip your students' learning. Educational leadership, 70(6), 16-20.##[26]See, S., & Conry, J. (2019). Flip My Class! A faculty development demonstration of a flipped-class.Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(4), 585-588 .##[27]Sezer , B. (2017). The Effectiveness of a Technology-Enhanced Flipped Science Classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Resrarch, v55 n4 p 471- 494 Jul 2017.##[28]Tavana, S. (2017). Investigating the effect of flipped class teaching method on mathematics learning and mathematical academic achievement of fourth grade elementary school girls in Bandar Abbas in the academic year 2016-2017, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch. (in Persian).##[29]Thomas ,J .S., & Philpot ,T .A . (2012, June). An inveted teaching model for a mechanics of materials course.Paper presented in ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition ,San Antonio,USA.##[30]Tulabi, H., & Azizi, F. (2018). Investigating the effect of flipped education on the learning rate of sixth grade elementary school students. "The first conference on teaching and applying mathematics. (in Persian).##[31]Ye, X. D., Chang, Y. H., & Lai, C. L. (2019). An interactive problem-posing guiding approach to bridging and facilitating pre-and in-class learning for flipped classrooms. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 1075-1092.##[32]Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the Role of E-Learning Readiness on Student Satisfaction and Motivation in Flipped Classroom. Computers in Human Behavior.
[1]Badleh, A., Mahmoudzadeh, H.,& Kabirizadeh, R. (2020). Comparison of Learning Memorization Learning from Multimedia Technology Classroom, Laboratory Classroom, and flipped Traditional Classroom in Elementary, Quarterly Journal of Curriculum Planning, 63:16 151-139. (in Persian).##[2]Barzegar, F.,& Faraj Elahi, M,. (2020). The effect of fllipped teaching method in science course on learning and self-concept of fourth year elementary students, Master Thesis, Payame Noor University, South Tehran. (in Persian).##[3]Gardner, H. (1983). Frams of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.##[4]Garrison, D. R., Kanuka, H. (2004). “Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education”. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2): 95-105.##[5]Gonzalez-Gomez, D., Jeong ,J.,& Airado Rodriguz, D,. (2016). Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom. Journal of Science Educational and technology, Canada- canada , Florentina,v25 n3 p450-459 Jun 2016.##[6]Jafarkhani, F., &, Dehvari .,S. (2017). The effect of flipped education on the academic achievemt and motivation seventh grade students in work and technology course, Conference on New Management Paradigms and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran. (in Persian).##[7]Jafarkhani, F,. Jamebozorg. ,Z., & Nikkho. L,. (2017).Review of learning environments: flipped class and learning elementary mathematics course, the first national conference on educational technology and learning environments, Tehran, Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian).##[8]Jamaludin, R., & Osman, S. Z. M. (2014). The use of a flipped classroom to enhance engagement and promote active learning. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 124-131.##[9]Hwang, R. H., Lin, H. T., Sun, J. C. Y., & Wu, J. J. (2019). Improving learning achievement in science education for elementary school students via blended learning. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD), 9(2), 44-62.##[10]Kakosimos, K. E. (2015). Example of a micro-adaptive instruction methodology for the improvement of flipped-classrooms and adaptive-learning based on advanced blended-learning tools. Education for chemical engineers, 12, 1-11.##[11]Knapp, R., (2010). Collective(Team) Learning Process Models: A Conceptual Review. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 285–299. Marks, M. A., Mathieu, J. E., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. Academy of Management Review, 26, 356-376.##[12]Kwon, J. E., & Woo, H. R. (2018). The impact of flipped learning on cooperative and competitive mindsets. Sustainability, 10(1), 79.##[13]Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43. learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89: 236e243. ##[14]Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2020). A comparison of flipped learning with gamification, traditional learning, and online independent study: the effects on students’ mathematics achievement and cognitive engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(4), 464-481.##[15]Macknnon , Gregory (2015). Determining Useful Tools for the Flipped Science Education Classroom. Contemporary Issue in Technoligy and Teacher Education (CITE Journal ) v15 n1 p44-55 2015.##[16]Mahoney, J. W., & Harris-Reeves, B. (2019). The effects of collaborative testing on higher order thinking: Do the bright get brighter?. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 25-37.##[17]Mansob, A., (2015). I want to flipped my class, can I or can't I? Farda School Educational Monthly, No. 88. (in Persian).##[18]Mayer, chat. (2005). Teaching critical thinking, translated by Khodayar Beigi, Tehran, Samat. (in Persian).##[19]McLean, S.,Attardi, S.M.,Faden,L.& Goldszmidt, M. (2016) flippedclassroom and student learning: not just surface gains. Advances in physiology Education,40(1),47-55.##[20]Noshadi, N.,& Khademi, M., (2011), Virji and Adorf (1993). Evaluation of the social studies curriculum of Iranian teacher training centers from the perspective of critical thinking. Educational Innovations, 38 (9), 134-107. (in Persian).##[21]Piri, M, Sahib Yar, H., & Sedalhi, A., (2019). The Impact of flipe Class on Self-Governance in Learning English Lessons, Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovation, 3:12 236-229. (in Persian).##[22]Rasooli, Y.,& Issa Murad, A. (2015). The effectiveness of rhetorical teaching methods on students' creativity and academic achievement. Innovation and Creativity in the Humanities, 6 (1), 174-157. (in Persian).##[23]Rosenberg, T. (2013). In flipped classrooms, a method for mastery. New York Times, 23.##[24]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J (2012). Flip your class room: reach every student in evrey class every day. International Society for technology in Education. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/resources/ product?ID= 2285.##[25]Sams, A., & Bergmann, J.(2013). Flip your students' learning. Educational leadership, 70(6), 16-20.##[26]See, S., & Conry, J. (2019). Flip My Class! A faculty development demonstration of a flipped-class.Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(4), 585-588 .##[27]Sezer , B. (2017). The Effectiveness of a Technology-Enhanced Flipped Science Classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Resrarch, v55 n4 p 471- 494 Jul 2017.##[28]Tavana, S. (2017). Investigating the effect of flipped class teaching method on mathematics learning and mathematical academic achievement of fourth grade elementary school girls in Bandar Abbas in the academic year 2016-2017, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch. (in Persian).##[29]Thomas ,J .S., & Philpot ,T .A . (2012, June). An inveted teaching model for a mechanics of materials course.Paper presented in ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition ,San Antonio,USA.##[30]Tulabi, H., & Azizi, F. (2018). Investigating the effect of flipped education on the learning rate of sixth grade elementary school students. "The first conference on teaching and applying mathematics. (in Persian).##[31]Ye, X. D., Chang, Y. H., & Lai, C. L. (2019). An interactive problem-posing guiding approach to bridging and facilitating pre-and in-class learning for flipped classrooms. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 1075-1092.##[32]Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the Role of E-Learning Readiness on Student Satisfaction and Motivation in Flipped Classroom. Computers in Human Behavior.