ارائه الگوی فراترکیب شایستگی های مدرسان دوره های یادگیری الکترونیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران

2 ستادیار ،گروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه

3 دانشیار، گروه فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مهندسی برق وکامپیوتر، دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشگاه یوله، سوئد

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی شایستگی های مدرسان دوره های یادگیری الکترونیکی و ارائه الگویی جهت تبیین آن ها انجام شده است. در این پژوهش، از روش فراترکیب هفت مرحله ای "سندلوسکی و باروسو" استفاده شده است. بر این اساس، جامعه پژوهش را پایگاه های داده (پنج پایگاه داده به زبان انگلیسی شامل "اسکوپوس"، "ساینس دایرکت"، گوگل اسکالر"، "اریک" و " پروکوئست" و یک پایگاه داده به زبان فارسی شامل "علم نت") و مجلات معتبر داخلی و خارجی در این حوزه تشکیل داد که 328 منبع یافت شد. نمونه گیری بر اساس مراحل فراترکیب انجام شد که 35 نمونه بر اساس معیارهای از قبل تعیین شده انتخاب شد. جهت تحلیل داده ها از کدگذاری باز و محوری و به‌منظور تعیین قابلیت اعتماد داده های پژوهش از استراتژی تأیید همکاران پژوهشی استفاده شد. طی فرآیند تحلیل و ترکیب یافته ها و با توجه به مفاهیم مورد تأکید در مقالات منتخب، الگوی شایستگی های مدرسان دوره های یادگیری الکترونیکی با استخراج 118 مفهوم، 26 مقوله و 9 بعد (شایستگی‌ فناورانه، شایستگی تخصصی، شایستگی‌ پداگوژی، شایستگی‌ هدایتگری، شایستگی‌ اجتماعی، شایستگی‌ فردی، شایستگی‌ اخلاقی، شایستگی‌ مدیریتی و شایستگی‌ خود توسعه‌ای) شکل گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Providing a Meta-Synthesis Model of Competencies of E-Learning Courses Instructors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ensieh Ramezanpour 1
  • javad pourkarimi 2
  • Seyed Omid Fatemi 3
  • Davoud Masoumi 4
1 Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran
3 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran.Iran
4 Yule University, Sweden
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to identify the competencies of e-learning courses instructors and provide a model to explain them. In this study, meta-synthesis method of seven stages of "Sandloski and Baruso" used. Based on this, the research community provided the databases (Five English databases including Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Eric and ProQuest and one Persian database including Elmnet) and formed prestigious domestic and foreign journals in this field, which 328 sources were found. Sampling was performed based on meta-combination steps. During the overcrowding process, 35 samples were selected based on pre-determined criteria related to the main research question. In order to analyze the data, open and central coding was used and in order to determine the reliability of the research data, the strategy of approval of the research colleagues was used. During the process of analysis and composition and according to the concepts emphasized in the selected articles, the competencies model of e-learning courses instructors by extracting 118 concepts, 26 categories and 9 dimensions (technological competency, speciality competency, pedagogy competency, guidance competency, social competency, individual competency, moral competency, managerial competency and self-development competency( were formed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • instructors
  • E-Learning
  • Competency
  • Meta-synthesis
Abdous, M. H. (2011). A process-oriented framework for acquiring online teaching competencies. Journal of Computing in Higher Education23(1), 60-77.
Adnan, M., Kalelioglu, F., & Gulbahar, Y. (2017). Assessment of a multinational online faculty development program on online teaching: Reflections of candidate e-tutors. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education18(1), 22-38.
Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Sharhan, H. (2012). A new instructional competency model: towards an effective e-learning system and environment. International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science5, 94-103.
Ally, M. (2019). Competency profile of the digital and online teacher in future education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning20(2).
Aslami, M., Esmaeili, Z., Saeidipour, B., & Sarmadi, M. R. (2018). Explaining the Professional Competencies of Instructors in the E-learning Environment. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences11(2), 15-24. (in Persian).
Bailie, J. (2011). Effective online instructional competencies as perceived by online university faculty and students: A sequel study.
Baran, E., Correia, A. P., & Thompson, A. (2011). Transforming online teaching practice: Critical analysis of the literature on the roles and competencies of online teachers. Distance Education32(3), 421-439.
Barberà, E., Layne, L., & Gunawardena, C. N. (2018). Designing online interaction to address disciplinary competencies. Demonstration Journal of the Classic Theme, 31;1(3).
Bawane, J., & Spector, J. M. (2009). Prioritization of online instructor roles: implications for competency‐based teacher education programs. Distance education30(3), 383-397.
Bazargan A, Bazargan K. (2020). Corona Free Advice to Higher Education for Use Digital Technology: The Need for Planning for Digital Transformation at Universities in Post-Corona. A collection of articles of Essays in Higher Education, Science and the Corona Crisis in Iran. Tehran: Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies. (in Persian).
Bazargan, A., & Ferasatkhah, M. (2017). Monitoring and evaluation in higher education. Tehran: Samt.(in Persain).
Bigatel, P. M., Ragan, L. C., Kennan, S., May, J., & Redmond, B. F. (2012). The identification of competencies for online teaching success. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks16(1), 59-77.
Bremer, C. (2010). Fit for ELearning? Trainings for ELearning Competencies. Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg.
Chua, A., & Lam, W. (2007). Quality assurance in online education: The Universitas 21 Global approach. British Journal of Educational Technology38(1), 133-152.
Crow, R., McGinty, D., & LeBaron, J. (2008). The Online Small Group Analysis (OSGA): Adapting a Tested Formative Assessment Technique for Online Teaching. MountainRise4(3).
Daneshvar, M & Mehr Mohammadi, M. (2013). Qualifications Required by E-learning Instructors. Journal of University E-Learning Quarterly. 4 (3). (in Persian).
Darabi, A. A., Sikorski, E. G., & Harvey, R. B. (2006). Validated competencies for distance teaching. Distance Education27(1), 105-122.
Davidson, P. L. (2014). Student perspectives of future online faculty competencies: A qualitative descriptive study. IHART36(14), 316-326.
Diehl, W. C. (2016). Online instructor and teaching competencies: Literature review for Quality Matters. Retrived from (https://www. qualitymatters.org/sites/default/files/research-docspdfs/QM-Online-Instructor-Teaching-Competencies-2016. pdf.
Egan, T. M., & Akdere, M. (2005). Clarifying distance education roles and competencies: Exploring similarities and differences between professional and student-practitioner perspectives. The American journal of distance education19(2), 87-103.
Ernest, P., Guitert Catasús, M., Hampel, R., Heiser, S., Hopkins, J., Murphy, L., & Stickler, U. (2013). Online teacher development: Collaborating in a virtual learning environment. Computer assisted language learning26(4), 311-333.
Farazkish, M., & Montazer, G. (2020). Assessing E-learning Readiness of Human Resources in Iranian Universities. Organizational Resources Management Researchs9(4), 139-164. (in Persian).
Fish, W. W., & Wickersham, L. E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors: Reminders. Quarterly Review of Distance Education10(3), 279.
Gauthie, C & Tardief, M. (2005). Pedagogy: The Science and Art of Teaching- Learning from Ancient Times to the Present (Theory and Application). Translated by Farideh Mashayekh. 2015. Tehran: Samt. (in Persian).
Ghorbankhani, M. A. H. D. I., & Salehi, K. (2017). Representation the characteristics of the successful Professors in the virtual education in Iran’s higher education system from the viewpoint of students and professors, a phenomenological study. Technology of Education Journal (TEJ)11(3), 235-255. (in Persian).
Guasch, T., Alvarez, I., & Espasa, A. (2010). University teacher competencies in a virtual teaching/learning environment: Analysis of a teacher training experience. Teaching and Teacher Education26(2), 199-206.
Gulbahar, Y., & Kalelioglu, F. (2015). Competencies for e-Instructors: How to qualify and guarantee sustainability. Contemporary Educational Technology6(2), 140-154.
Human Resources Professionals Association. (2014). Human resources: professional competency framework.
Jando, E., Hidayanto, A. N., Prabowo, H., & Warnars, H. L. H. S. (2017, November). Personalized E-Learning model: A systematic literature review. In 2017 International Conference on Information Management and Technology (ICIMTech) (pp. 238-243). IEEE.
Klein, J. D., Spector, J. M., Grabowski, B. L., & de la Teja, I. (2004). Instructor Competencies: Standards for FacetoFace, Online, and Blended Settings. IAP.
Levinsen, K. T. (2006). Collaborative On-Line Teaching: The Inevitable Path to Deep Learning and Knowledge Sharing?. Electronic Journal of E-learning4(1), 41-48.
Li, S., Zhang, J., Yu, C., & Chen, L. (2017). Rethinking distance tutoring in e-learning environments: A study of the priority of roles and competencies of Open University Tutors in China. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning18(2), 189-212.
Liaw, S. S., Huang, H. M., & Chen, G. D. (2007). Surveying instructor and learner attitudes toward e-learning. Computers & Education49(4), 1066-1080.
Major, C. H. (2010). Do virtual professors dream of electric students? University faculty experiences with online distance education. Teachers College Record112(8), 2154-2208.
Martin, F., Budhrani, K., Kumar, S., & Ritzhaupt, A. (2019). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Roles and competencies. Online Learning23(1), 184-205.
Mâţă, L. (2011). Experimental research regarding the development of methodological competences in beginning teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences29, 1895-1904.
Nelson, B. C. (2007). Exploring the use of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational multi-user virtual environment. Journal of Science Education and Technology16(1), 83-97.
Nilkanthrao, C.P. (2020). Evolving role of library and Information centers in e-learning environment. Studies in Indian Place Names, 40(49):402-7.
Pearcy, M. (2014). Student, teacher, professor: Three perspectives on online education. The History Teacher47(2), 169-185.
Petter, S., DeLone, W., & McLean, E. R. (2013). Information systems success: The quest for the independent variables. Journal of management information systems29(4), 7-62.
Pourkarimi, J & Ramezanpour, E. (2019). Model of Professional Development of E-learning Faculty Members in the Country: Qualitative Research. Journal of Human Resources Education and Development, 6 (21):146-125.(in Persian).
Richey, R. C., Fields, D. C., & Foxon, M. (2001). Instructional design competencies: The standards. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse University, 621 Skytop Rd., Suite 160, Syracuse, NY 13244-5290.
Salehi, N., Petersen, C., Hurley, S., Sherven, P., & Reilly, C. (2017). Creating Online Teaching Competencies and a Faculty Development Curriculum. Minnesota Summit on Learning & Technology.
Salmon, G. (2012). E-moderating: The key to online teaching and learning. Routledge.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2006). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. springer publishing company.
Shaikh, Z. A., & Khoja, S. A. (2014). Personal learning environments and university teacher roles explored using Delphi. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology30(2).
Smith, T. C. (2005). Fifty-one competencies for online instruction. The Journal of Educators Online2(2), 1-18.
Spector, J. M. (2007). Competencies for online teachers. Finding your online voice: Stories told by experienced online educators, 1-18.
Thach, E. C. (1995). Perceptions of distance education experts regarding the roles, outputs, and competencies needed in the field of distance education.
Tyrrell, R. (2015). Exploring the needs and perceptions of online faculty towards faculty professional development: A qualitative study (Doctoral dissertation, UCLA).
Udo, G. J., Bagchi, K. K., & Kirs, P. J. (2011). Using SERVQUAL to assess the quality of e-learning experience. Computers in Human Behavior27(3), 1272-1283.
Unesco, I. C. T. (2011). Competency framework for teachers. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
UNESCO. (2020). UNESCO Institute for Statistics data. Retrieved from: en.unesco.org/themes/education-emergencies/coronavirus-schools-colours.
Varvel, V. E. (2007). Master online teacher competencies. Online journal of distance learning administration10(1).
Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2008). Who is responsible for e-learning success in higher education? A stakeholders' analysis. Journal of Educational Technology & Society11(3), 26-36.
Williams, P. E. (2003). Roles and competencies for distance education programs in higher education institutions. The American Journal of Distance Education17(1), 45-57.
Yuksel, I. (2009). Instructor competencies for online courses. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences1(1), 1726-1729.